Slider tasting, it`s free!
M141 /M134 just come in through the back door of Mannaki at 11.00am or 11,30am each day,
Monday 2oth October, and Wednesday 22nd October
Then Tues 28th 4pm.and 4,30pm
Wed 29th and Thurs 30th 11.00am and 11,30pm
As the Bachelor of Culinary Arts, (BCA) is a recently developed program, “the effective combination of different modes of delivery, models of teaching and styles of learning” (Heinze & Procter, 2004, a Procter, (2003: 3), is facilitated by project based learning. Therefore during my investigation into blended learning, some strategies that I considered to be the most beneficial and relevant are already in existence within the BCA, in both years one and two. Therefore in choosing which strategies to apply, I feel that I am required to respect the hierarchical order of application of strategies that are already in existence. There is also a need to be conscious of the need to not overload students in the first year, and the reality is that I competing for time with up to two other courses at a time, which are delivered simultaneously and closely related. That is to say that there is not reflective change in the program and several changes are afoot currently, due to feedback from students and staff, (and industry).
And while Holden, & Emeritus,(2011, p.6), say that “there is no universally accepted definition of blending learning” the structure of the BCA does allow for “the integration (of) two separate paradigms, traditional face to face classroom environment and the on line environment” (Holden, & Emeritus,2011, p.10). The BCA also uses a range of blended strategies which are included in the Gallery of e-learning strategies, (N.A, N.D). However some other strategies within the Gallery were better suited to knowledge and comprehension when compared to Blooms Taxonomy (1956) (figure 1), for instance; cross words, label and identify diagrams matching and sequencing.
Figure one: Blooms Taxonomy
The facilitation of two separate paradigms within the BCA is the fundamental difference when compared to a traditional cookery (educational), environment, which is based on “centuries old production focused, behaviourist pedagogy” (Mitchell, Woodhouse, Heptinstall, & Camp, 2013, p245). The BCA blends a synchronous environment, (“virtual instructor-led classroom”) (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011, p.19), with an asynchronous environment, (“different time, and place”) (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011, p.19). This then creates “various pedagogical approaches (e.g. Constructivism, behaviourism and cognitivism)”, (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011, p.11). The asynchronous strategies that occur “without an instructor” (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011, p.32), would anecdotally represent one third of the course, or as Holden, & Emeritus, (2011, p.62), a, The Sloan-C Foundation described as a “web facilitated” course.
Each environment has distinct advantages, which help contribute each different pedagogical approach for instance asynchronous can support “more opportunity for reflective thought” and there is “flexibility of content” (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011, p.35). While the synchronous learning environment can provide, “peer support” and “structured learning” (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011, p.33).
So is the BCA learning environment better than one of traditional cookery? According to Holden, & Emeritus’s research, there are no significant differences in “learning out comes”, when appropriate media is selected (Holden & Emeritus, 2011, p.26). Joseph La Lopa (2011) also said that there was “no clear picture” when describing the ideal class room, (La Lopa, 2011, p285). So making a comparison between the BCA and traditional cookery,is not enough and there needs to be consideration of the effect that the media resource are having. Holden, & Emeritus (2011) make the point that;
“The ultimate goal is to increase performance through systematic evaluation of intra-dependant variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media.” (p.25).
The BCA, utilises a range of resources, they do tend to be Moodle or Library based, and Holden and Emeritus (2011) question in which direction the information flows, is it “asymmetrical interaction” (Holden & Emeritus, 2011, p.45)? Or does it only flow one way, “symmetrical” (Holden & Emeritus, 2011, p.45)? So how often does the BCA allow for information to pass collaboratively in two directions? Holden, & Emeritus, (2011),also say that;
“Considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering the synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media.” (p.46).
So should the strategies that I develop for this task, therefore promote better dialogue between the learner, the lecturer and content? I am not known as an “early adopter” (of technological advance) as Everett Rogers (1962) described in `Diffusion of innovations’ (Wikipedia). So I would feel more at ease if I was to make use of existing technology. The first strategy is pertaining to pastoral care and what happens to students who do not, (or do not want to) attend checkpoints leading up to assessment. While this strategy is not going to benefit all learners on the BCA, (Jeffrey, Milne, Suddaby & Higgins, 2012) say that for “students who are not engaged, the most effective strategy for re engaging is personal contact” (Jeffrey, Milne, Suddaby & Higgins, 2012, p.4). They advocate simple methods of contacting students and providing assistance for students. (Jeffrey, Milne, Suddaby & Higgins, 2012). So my first strategy will be to; engage learners so as to provide confidents and assess their learning to date.
My second strategy is to try to obtain more timely and relevant feedback after a project`s assessment. Traditionally on the BCA, our assessment activities can cumulate in final summative assessment that occurs at the end of about seven weeks work and involves tutor and customer feedback. And in two papers this event often occurs near term end. The first, Hot Kitchen, due to structural change to the programs structure will dictate that the chance to reflect as a group will occur six weeks after the event. My second strategy will be to; establish an “asymmetrical interaction” to provide a forum that allows reflective feedback.
Heinze & Procter, (2004), redefine their definition of blended learning as;
“The effective combination of different modes of delivery, models of teaching and styles of learning, and founded on transparent communication amongst all parties involved with a course.”(p.10).
It is most probably time for a look at our resources to test their effectiveness, as “different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate “blend” (Holden, & Emeritus, 2011p.24).And indeed “the dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is as only effective as the design of the instruction” (Holden & Emeritus, 2011, p.54).
Cornwell, J. (Photographer). (2011, March 23). Blooms Taxonomy [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://juliaec.wordpress.com/2011/03/23/blooms-taxonomy-encouraging-higher-cognitive-thinking-in-primary-school-classrooms/
Heinze, A. & C. Procter (2004). Reflections on the use of blended learning. Education in a Changing Environment. University of Salford, Salford, Education Development Unit. Retrieved from http://www.ece.salford.ac.uk/proceedings/papers/ah_04.rtf
Holden, J., & Emeritus, C. (2011, November 18). Developing a blended learning strategie. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/jtholden/developing-a-blended-learning-strategy-instructional-media-pedagogical-considerations
Jeffrey, L., Milne, J., Suddaby, G., & Higgins, A. Ako Aotearoa National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence, (2012). Help or hindrance: blended approaches and student engagement (ISBN: 978-1-927202-22-7). Retrieved from Ako Aotearoa National Centre for Tertiary Teaching Excellence website: https://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-3089/help-or-hindrance-final-report.pdf
La Lopa, J. M. (2011). Student reflection on quality teaching and how to assess it in higher education. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 9(4), 284-285. doi: Volume 9, Issue 4, 2011
Mitchell, R., Woodhouse, A., Heptinstall, T. and Camp, J. (2013)Why use design methodology in culinary arts education. Hospitality @society3:3, pp241-262, doi; 10.1386/hosp.3.3.241-1
Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovations
Once again, if I reflect upon the past two decades I find that “the way in which we access knowledge has been completely transformed in the last twenty years” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p.12).We are within a ‘digital revolution’ which influences not only may teaching style, but since the end of “the 90s a widespread copy and remix culture has emerged” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p.13). I will endeavor to inform myself about this subject tell you a bit about ourselves and consider the implication of this technology.
Open Education Resources (OER), and Open Educational Practices (OEP), are both new terms that I have not heard to date, despite Eleonora Pantò & Anna Comas-Quinn, (2013), saying that “around 20,000 courses are now available openly together with an estimated 500 million OER: the need for tools that enable us to discover what we are looking for is obvious and pressing” (Pantò, & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p18). In fact the only term I knew about on line education, to date was the acronym for Massive Online Open Courses (MOOC`s). For a clearer definition of on line learning, Ruth Jelley,(2013) describes OER as “full courses, course materials, modules , textbooks, streaming videos, software, and any other tools materials or techniques used to support access to knowledge”(Jelly, 2013, p. 1). As well MOOCs are described as being “based on a wide range of aggregated content offered through a variety of channels” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p19). And the term OEP is supported by Pete Forsyth an owner at Wiki Strategies who is in favor of the existence of creative commons which allow for work to be licensed and used on the web.(Vollmer, 2011)
To date I would have not considered the school of Hospitality to be a good example of OER, as we do not allow for public access to content. The closest example that comes to mind is where the course material is shared beyond one cohort. This occurs within the Bachelor of Culinary Arts,(BCA), year one`s Larder module shell. As the school of Hospitality delivers material that is able to be referenced by the Capable students too. Otherwise most content material that is placed on Moodle has restricted access, to that year’s group. However when looking on Otago Polytechnics list of OER projects, Hospitality does feature and instructional videos made from 2008-2010, that are available as YouTube videos.
Worldwide the use of the internet has enhanced the dissemination of innovation in the hospitality field, for example Ferran Adriá of el Bulli has closed his famous restaurant to create bullipedia, ( http://www.bullipedia.com/ ), which is an “online community of knowledge and sharing” (N.A, 2013). Grant Achatz (of Chicago restaurants Next and Alinea) now regularly broadcasts his methodologies on YouTube. (Mitchell,et al 2013). Though it does not seem that long ago that Jamie Oliver (The naked chef) inspired a (western) worldwide interest in local, fresh ingredients, prepared in a simple manner, on television. And television still remains a way for the spread of “cooking” information, especially if we consider the work of Heston Blumenthal (Heston’s Feasts), which are showing that food experience is desirable for some diners. And finally on the subject of worldwide use of the internet, in a previous post I spoke about “The World association of Chefs Societies (WACS) recently joining forces with City and Guilds, to offer online certification (Magill, 2013). Which does not threaten our full time market but could draw Capable learners away, as these two organisations may command loftier recognition of their qualification when compared to the BCA from Otago Polytechnic, Dunedin, New Zealand.
“Education must help people to think critically, to develop a sense of personal identity (of becoming someone), to learn to live together and to care for one another” (Stevenson, 2012, p.191). Within Hospitality an example of what Stevenson is referring to, can be seen by the development of Nordic cuisine, through Rene Rendzepi of Noma and his collaborative work within the Nordic Food Lab which is a “self-governing organization run on a not-for-profit basis”(N.A, 2010).
Benefits of OER, OEP and MOOC`s.
In an unlikely place, Mooresville Middle School, North Carolina, USA, they have revolutionised how they teach with the inclusion of computers for each student .This brings changes on how a teacher interacts with students, and that resonates with me, due to some the changes that have been incurring with the introduction of the BCA. Emily Hanford & Stephen Smith, (2013), say:
“Learning with a personal tutor is one of the oldest and best ways to learn. Hiring a tutor for every student was never a realistic option. Now, new computer programs can customize education for each child. But adding computers to classrooms isn’t likely to help unless teachers are willing to change their approach to teaching.” (p.1)
In their website titled One child at a time, Hanford &Smith, (2013), quote Sara Schapiro, director of the League of Innovative Schools, who speaks of “ceding control” of the classroom, due to the effect of allowing students to research items on Google. And also says that teachers who have been teaching “in front “of a class for 30 years, who may be an expert in their field, are suddenly made to feel “uncomfortable” due to the changing nature of control, Hanford &Smith, (2013,Chapter 1).
Carpe Diem is a public charter school in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Rick Ogston is the school’s founder , and he is an advocate of computers in classrooms and spoke about, “flipping the classroom” which is about the changing way the delivering of content is happening (Hanford &Smith, 2013, Chapter 4). The term `flipping the classroom’ is one of the consequences of introducing project based learning on the BCA. The process which the Khan Academy, whose approach is based on line delivery to the world practices a `flipped classroom’ model, in which the “theory (and any necessary repetitions) is delivered through recorded video, watched by students at home, while the tasks are done in class with the help of other peers and instructors” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p18).
The best example of literature that is supportive of the view that this digital revolution is beneficial is provided by Ruth Jelley (2013) who says that:
“The literature provides a wide range of benefits such as encouraging lifelong learning (Joyce, 2006), improving teaching skills through resource development and adaptation of learner centered pedagogies”(p. 2).
Eleonora Pantò & Anna Comas-Quinn, (2013, p19) say that MOOC `s provide “focuses on learners creating networks and constructing meaning through interaction with others.” Meanwhile the inclusion of student lap tops in a high school in American mid-west has “changed the way they teach: less lecturing, fewer worksheets; more student projects, more lessons customized to the learning needs of each student” (Hanford & Smith, 2013, p.1). This is a powerful change in pedagogy and one that Bloom, 1984 investigated, to see how much students learnt in a typical class setting and compared this with how much they learnt with personal tutoring. The result was in favor of tutoring but this was too expensive as an option (Hanford & Smith, 2013). Other benefits include “reducing costs for students and facilities by reducing reliance on commercial textbooks (Joyce 2006), improved collaboration between colleagues within and between institutions” (Jelley, 2013, p.2).
Consequences of OER and OEP
“It takes a leap of faith for teachers to understand that sharing their educational content benefits the entire education system” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p.18). As well as “flipping the class room” the notion of sharing information can be challenging and ownership of material can be a concern for experts. Jelley (2013)and Blackall (2008) are concerned about copyright licenses and restrictions on the reuse of open materials. Ruth Jelley (2013) goes on to say that there is “a lack of awareness of OER, and widespread confusion over copy right issues“(Jelley, 2013, p.2). The work that Otago Polytechnic has done with their wiki -link to on line learning indicated that there is support for these issues. However, Jelly et al (2013), also note “that resources that can be shared but not adapted are…“merely `reference’ materials”, and that such practices “… [Stifle] both innovation on the materials and also community participation” (Jelley, 2013, p.2).
While I am a supportive benefactor of this digital revolution, I do have reservations about the validly of online assessment. “Several private and public institutions, such as the Saylor Foundation, are already providing some certification on completion of courses made up of OER” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p19). The certification is in the form of badges, other institutions to embrace this trend of providing limited certification are MIT and Harvard. Eleonora Pantò & Anna Comas-Quinn, (2013), say that:
“Automatic evaluation methods such as multiple choice tests or quizzes are in great demand, and the Khan Academy has an open call for developers who want to collaborate in the creation of systems of evaluation that are suitable for large numbers of students” (p.19).
The testing of knowledge is one of the key drivers in the online model of assessment. However, “one challenge leader’s face is verifying those online students are who they say they are” (Young, 2012). To counter this, already Turn it in on Moodle has the ability to detect signs of plagiarism, and we use this facility on the BCA. Jeffery Young (2012) goes on to say that Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are developing software that can recognize each person’s typing style and makes the point that one college can scan finger print as well as capturing the students image. But Young (2012) finishes by saying that there are still challenges ahead.
The “digital divide” is another issue that concerns me, and Mark Edwards from Mooresville Public school said “we felt a real urgency around the digital divide” (Hanford &Smith, 2013, Chapter 5). “A working-class town…the poverty rate (is) rising; textile mills that had allowed generations of families to live a middle-class life had recently closed. Times were tough” (Hanford &Smith, (2013, Chapter 5). Is this description Dunedin or Mooresville? If we consider the census profile of Dunedin where, “the proportion of house-hold with internet access climbed from 60.59% in 2006 to 77.79% last year” (Elder, 2014 p.10) Therefore the possibly of out of class learning that is a feature of the digital revolution that I have spoken about may be hindered. However the “proportion of Dunedin households with access to cellphones (83.44%) almost over took fixed telephone access (85.05%)” (Elder, 2014, p.10). Which still leaves room for exclusion, or does the increasing use of cellphones partly help explain my antidotal impression that this years cohort, (2013) was becoming more narcissistic?(Consedine, 2014). Personally, I could refer to some of them as being part of “GEN, N”, if there was such a name.
My final concern is about the failure rate of MOCC`s, Mc Kendrick, (2013) reported in Smart Planet, that figures from Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education on average had a four percent pass rate,(40,000 passed out of one million). Firstly under our current arrangement with our main funding body the Tertiary Education Commission, it would not allow currently for a course to have such low rate of ‘retention” so looking forward some of the issue of governance and funding are too greater issues that I can deal with in this submission.
The overriding theme of Sustainability
Within the literature that I have encountered, overriding themes about sustainable practice have occurred for instance:
“Issues such as food security, poverty, sustainable tourism, urban quality, women, fair trade, green consumerism, ecological public health and waste management as well as those of climatic change, deforestation, land degradation, desertification, depletion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity are primary concerns for both environmental and development education” (Fein & Tilbury 2002, p.8).
So has the multitude of sustainable issues become to pressing too ignored? There is debate about the interpretations of sustainably, and they are split into two distinct categories; “sustainable economic growth” and “sustainable human development.” (Fien &Tilbury, 2002, p.3). Sustainable economic growth is “reformist” and only adheres to principles of sustainably as one of a range of policy options. Unlimited growth still continues within “sustainable development”(Fien &Tilbury 2002, p.3)
There is a call for a radical departure from the current system Fein &Tilbury, (2002), Randers, (1992) and Orr, 1991. The current model of “top down development” needs to focus more on sustainable human development. This view challenges established interests, and it focuses upon issues of social equity and ecological limits, and,” thereby, questions world views and development models that are predicated on assumptions of unlimited economic growth” (Fien &Tilbury 2002, p.3).Another view is also provided by Michael Pollan (2006) who argues in The Omnivore’s Dilemma, that our lives and food production system are harmful not only to society but:
“A tension has always existed between the capitalist imperative to maximize efficiency at any cost and the moral imperatives of culture, which historically have served as a counterweight to the moral blindness of the market. This is another example of the cultural contradictions of capitalism – the tendency over time for the economic impulse to erode the moral underpinnings of society. Mercy toward the animals in our care is one such casualty” (p.318).
If you consider Otago Polytechnics approach to sustainability, in the Hospitality context there are still glaring inconsistencies which reflect the dichotomy and serious amount of change that Polan(2006), Fein & Tilbury (2002) and (Orr 1991) are calling for. Fien & Tilbury (2002), and Agyeman (1999), maintain that education has a responsibility human development and sustainable practice, and are disparaging about “past practices “which focused on litter, (reduction), nature study and the planting of trees in the school grounds and other apolitical and aesthetic work” (Fien & Tilbury 2002, p.8). It is worth noting too that like us, the most educated nations have “the highest per capita rates of consumption and currently leave the deepest ecological footprints” (Hopkins& McKeown 2012, p.17).
However should “the formal education system, which in reality touches children for a fraction of their lives” be solely responsible for installing more sustainable ideals in everything from “living, working, to governing?” Or does the responsibly for this need to be part of a wider societies problem and should sections such as media, embrace this change, too? (Hopkins& McKeown,2013, P.17). Nevertheless the “grassroots” way of developing material and “collaborative, peer-led and low cost forms of learning are now weakening the more traditional model of higher education” (Pantò & Comas-Quinn, 2013, p.20). So the continuation of education is already changing albeit haphazardly.
So I while I am still emerged in a system whose “central purpose is viewed as enabling individuals to pursue their own economic self-interests” (Stevenson, 2012, p.190). While participating in a society that measures success by “ economic terms,” I feel that by teaching and embracing this digital revolution, along with its benefits of working collaboratively and sharing that occur through project based learning, we are allowing learners to be better equipped to find their own community and avoid “dead-end, low paying jobs, mainly in the service sector”(Stevenson, 2012, p.190).
If education is to play a significant role in “motivating and empowering people to participate in local changes towards more sustainable lifestyles and living conditions” Fien & Tilbury, (2002, Chapter 1), and partake in the “need for authentic participation in the study of local issues. (Stevenson, 2012, p.193) it is with a degree of pride that I can provide an example from 2013. A first year student, Alan Baxter (2013), recently experimented with making a political statement, with an assessment dish, during the Hot Kitchen (foraging) paper. He prototyped a dish that was interactive, and which symbolised the destruction of Black head, on the Otago coast south of Dunedin:
“At Back head the commercial quarry is destroying the once prominent headland, this dish is a response. It can be eaten one or two ways. Either the broth is poured into the bowl, preserving the venerable landscape or conversely the broth can be pored over top of the gentle ice (plant). Destroying the balance of flavor” (Alan Baxter, 2013).
So with project based leaning some of the ideals spoken about can be realized and in terms of sustainability I feel that I am better equipped to tackle some of the challenges that exist within my department. And one of the most fundamental changes with this access to information that we are involved with now, you only have to consider the immediacy of the reference list below in this submission. Also, Mooresville’s principal, Carrie Tulbert, said “a teacher’s job isn’t to have all the answers. A teacher’s job is to ask the right questions” (Hanford &Smith, 2013, Chapter 5).
Consedine, N. (Writer) (2014). Psychology with associate professor Nathan Consedine [Radio series episode]. In McCarthy, N. (Executive Producer), Summer Noelle. Auckland: Radio
Elder, V. (2014, January 11). Younger, poorer, more educated than average. Otago Daily Times, p. 10.
Fien , J., & Tilbury, D. (2002).The global challenge of sustainability: Responding to the global challenge . (pp. 1-12). Cambridge: IUCN Publications Services Unit. Retrieved from http://ibcperu.org/doc/isis/13028.pdf
Hanford, E., & Smith, S. (2013, August). One child at a time custom learning in the digital age. Retrieved from http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/personalized-learning/
Hospitality’s inclusion in OER: http://wikieducator.org/Otago_Polytechnic/Home
Hopkins, C., & McKeown, R. (2002)., Education for sustainable development: an international perspective. Responding to the global challenge (pp. 14-24). Cambridge: IUCN Publications Services Unit. Retrieved from http://ibcperu.org/doc/isis/13028.pdf
Jelley, R. (2013, April 15). Open education practices: A user guide for organisations/OER literature review. Retrieved from http://en.wikibooks.org
N.A. (2013). Bullipedia. Retrieved from http://www.bullipedia.com/
N.A. (2010, Feburary 10). Nordic food lab. Retrieved from http://nordicfoodlab.org/
Mckendrick, J. (2013, Decemeber 15). Only four percent complete massive open online courses: setback or growing pains?. Retrieved from http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/bulletin/only-four-percent-of-students-completing-massive-open-online-courses/?tag=nl.e660&s_cid=e660&ttag=e660&ftag=TRE4eb29b5
Magill, J. (2013). Industry knowledge recognised . Hospitality/Thirst, 49(Sept), 13.
Mitchell, R., Woodhouse, A., Heptinstall, T. and Camp, J. (2013)Why use design methodology in culinary arts education. Hospitality @society3:3, pp241-262, doi; 10.1386/hosp.3.3.241-1
Pantò E., Comas-Quinn A. (2013). The Challenge of Open Education, Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 9(1), 11-22. The focus is on Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Educational Practices (OEP).
Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma: A natural history of four meals. London: The Penguin Press.
Stevenson, B. (2002). Education and sustainable development: perspectives and possibilities responding to the global challenge. (pp. 187-195). c: IUCN Publications Services Unit. Retrieved from http://ibcperu.org/doc/isis/13028.pdf
The world’s 50 best restaurants. (2014 , January 01). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restaurant_(magazine)_Top_50
Young, J. (2012). Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/Cheating-Goes-High-Tech/132093/
Vollmer, T. (2011, June 6). Open education and policy. Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/tag/open-education-and-policy
Sustainability influences within my teaching practice.
As the Bachelor of Culinary Arts (BCA) is a recent development and in its third iteration, I find that in terms of sustainability I can provide numerous examples of beneficial practices, however there is always room for improvement and the area of implications for excessive work load this is an area that I have found some interesting research (Lockwood, 1999).
If we look at the first paper that is taught on the BCA, Larder fundamentals and exercise that deals with the butchery and preservation of a whole pig (see figure one) can illustrate how the learning environment is within the BCA. The process of procuring the animal is students the first introduction into making informed decisions around environmental issues (New Zealand Government, N.D, p.3).
The free range animal is not from the Havoc Pig Company, but from a more humane piggery the same area, Waitaki pork. The timing of this workshop coincides with the philosophy of eating seasonally and the term nose to tail eating is introduced, and the best practitioners of this philosophy Bevan Smith (Riverstone), and Fleur Sullivan, (Fleurs) are also from the area that the pig came from. Our best sustainable practitioners in our local area are Alison Lambert and Tim Lynch. Students are encouraged to see them at the Otago farmers market in late summer as “student learn as they engage in shared activities and conversations with other people, including family members and people in the wider community’ (New Zealand Government, N.D, p.3). Later in the process there is another person, Alfie Harris who welcomes students and who will show students how to make Lebanese cuisene.
One of the outcomes of this lesson is that students are introduced to preservation techniques, which is part of a requirement for a summative assessment later in the course. So this lesson is delivered and structured so that the students are in small groups throughout. As there are a range of tasks to be completed this allows for student to develop “positive relationships with their fellow students and teachers, (as we engage in facilitating the lesson at this stage), and when they are active, visible members of the learning community” (New Zealand Government, N.D, p.3).
The reflective part of this lesson comes with the evaluation of the product later on, and in investigation this lesson it may be worthwhile asking some questions in the reflective portfolio about this lessons activities as there is currently not, and try to ask questions that will encourage learners to move beyond the ‘pig’ to seeing the value of working in a team, or the cost benefit of preservation, or the pros and cons of using free range product, as “teachers need to facilitate critical reflection practices to help students understand what and how they learn, and to develop strategies for future experiences and actions.” (New Zealand Government, N.D, p.3).
The counter argument to my positive appraisal of this lesson is provided by firstly (Robinson, 2007): who says that creativity is as important as literacy and while creativity is one of the most fundamental pedagogies within the BCA programme, based on our observations of the first year two students, we would argue that there is a balance that still needs to be struck in terms of creativity versus process. And are supporting implementing stronger emphasise on the some of the basics and reduction the amount of creativity required.
In terms of sustainability the t he most critical opponent of the current educational status quo is David Orr (1991) who said;
For the most part we labour under a confusion of ends and means, thinking that the goal of education is to stuff all kinds of facts, techniques, methods and information into the student’s mind, regardless of how and with what effect it will be used. The Greeks new better. (Orr, 1991, p.5).
Orr speaks of an “ignorance” (of environmental foot print) that is produced by educational institutions and the harm that teaching people to be “successful” is doing to our environment. (Orr, 1991). Despite this, I feel fortunate that the living campus at Otago Polytechnic and our proximately to its produce from the garden can be an example of vindication as part of our lessons are used in the following ways;
Due to the actions of our institution, and its foresight, our graduates will become better “sustainable practitioners “by being more aware of the environment by the time that they complete their third year, however, despite the work of Orr 1991, we are duty bound to arm them with the ability to be successful.
Food awareness is becoming something that culinary education needs to embrace, as the western world is awakening to the world’s diminishing resources, the effects of climate change taking place and the uncertainty of global financial markets. (Mitchell et al 2013).Against these global pressures is the reality for the hospitality industry is that “the industry is characterised by a high rate of business start-up and closures” especially in small and medium enterprises. (New Zealand Government, 2010)
In America the industry, “remains one of the most difficult, yet fundamentally simple, businesses to operate” (Williams, 2008). Parsa et al, 2005 discovered that in the first year 26% of new operations fail, and in the 2nd year it is 19% and in the 3rd year it drops to 14%, or, 59% in under four years.
So in culinary education, wider business skills are as important as the desire for Otago Polytechnic to have “sustainable practitioners. So balance of creativity, processes, and responsibility to deliver content in a sustainable manner are changing combination of priorities. However a strong indication of what we should be including, in terms of responsibility to hospitality students comes from Parsa et al. (2005), who “found few differences in having a well defied strategy between successful and failed restaurant owners but considerable differences in clarity of concept. “So now the challenge is to implement changes that are balanced, as Lockwood. (1999: 314) goes on to say that:
Generating over-length material will have consumed more resources than necessary and inevitably make that intuition less competitive-with fewer resources for investment in new courses, new technologies, student support etc.
The final outcome of the pig lesson would be the chance to run farmers market of our own, as this encompasses a range of pedagogies; and provides are good opportunity to reflect all the way back to the first lesson.
Lockwood, F. (1999). Estimating Student Workload: Implications for Quality Learning. Staff and Educational Development International, 3(3), 281. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/p/90875.
Mitchell, R., Woodhouse, A., Heptinstall, T. and Camp, J. (2013)why use design methodology in culinary arts education. Hospitality @society3:3, pp241-262, doi; 10.1386/hosp.3.3.241-1
New Zealand Government. (N.D). Education for sustainability. Retrieved from Ministry Of Education website: http://efs.tki.org.nz/EfS-in-the-curriculum/Taking-action/Action-competence
New Zealand Government. (ND). Action competence. Retrieved from Ministry of Education Retrieved from Ministry Of Education website: http://efs.tki.org.nz/EfS-in-the-curriculum/Taking-action/Action-competence
New Zealand Government. (N.D). The New Zealand -curriculum effective pedagogy. Retrieved from Ministry of education website: http://efs.tki.org.nz/EfS-in-the-curriculum/Effective-pedagogy
New Zealand Government. (2010). Hospitality industry. Retrieved from Inland Revenue website: http://www.ird.govt.nz/aboutir/reports/compliance-focus/compliance-focus-2010-11/hidden-economy/compliance-hidden-economy-hospitality.html
Orr, D. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.context.org/iclib/ic27/orr/
Parsa, H.G., Self, J.T., Njite, D. and King, T. (2005), `why restaurants fail’ Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46:3, pp.304-22
Robinson, K. (2007). Do schools kill creativity? Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iG9CE55wbtY
Williams, R. (2008, February 04). Why new restaurants fail. Retrieved from hvs.com why restaurants fail, 2008
The NMC Horizon Report 2013 has been such a valuable tool and I am eagerly awaiting the release of another paper, in a years’ time. When earlier this year I was fortunate enough to listen to Tom Cochrane, it made me feel that our developments to date in Hospitality where somewhat dated in comparison of how he could run his life entirely through a hand held device. So in this submission I endeavour to update my knowledge of the rapidly changing environment that we all find our self’s in.
My first area of interest was the idea that that MOOCs (massive open online courses), could threaten our, institution. The Otago Polytechnic Strategy Refocus: Road-map for Change, 2013 said
“We must focus our services on where we can excel and be nationally and internationally competitive. If we do not then others will, in what is an increasingly competitive international market place for educational services” (N.A, 2013, p.2).
So with this thought in mid I found an article of relevance in the September Hospitality magazine that said that the World Association of Chefs Societies (WACS) had recently introduced one of the “most exciting developments in the culinary industry this year” (Magill, 2013, p.13).
As the name of organisation implies it is a global entity. However they have teamed up with another global entity, City and Guilds, to offer a “global culinary certification scheme” (Magill, 2013.p.13). This development would be a threat to our Capable market that is about 10 EFT s per year. And “MOOCs are an evolving and expanding area with new developments likely to offer greater variety of courses and more innovative social learning pedagogies” (Sharples, McAndrew, Weller, Ferguson, Fitzgerald, Hirst & Gaved, 2013, p.2). Magill, (2013) goes on to say;
“One of the key features of the scheme is the uses of technology to reach as many individuals as possible around the world. The application and assessment process are done electronically making the scheme affordable and assessable.”
But if I was to focus solely on this development it would not benefit my current group of learners as they represent a different market. So for various reasons, which I will explain as I go on, I have chosen to investigate an area that we have no connection to or development in so far, which is gaming and gamification. Gaming is perhaps the most abhorrent recent activity that the hospitality industries (and sometimes the dining public) have had to put up with in recent years. Disconnecting staff from mobile devices still remains a challenge, but the importance of educational games in a pedagogical sense can be seen by its placement in the NMC Horizon report 2013, as being a trend that is predicted to be only two to three years away within higher education. (Johnson, Adams Becker, Cummins, Estrada, Freeman & Ludgate, 2013).
Does being the parent of a sixteen year old mine craft “addict,” qualify my thought that despite its “subversive nature” the on line game playing that I have witnessed in our house is perhaps the most engaging activity that an adolescent boy can partake in. This view is partially supported by what was said in the NMC Horizon report 2012:
“The three most recent cohorts of children — those born in the early 1980s, the early 1990s, and the early 2000s — have grown up in a world where digital games have always been an important part of their lives, and entered or graduated from higher education institutions with hundreds of hours of gaming experience.” (Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012 p.18).
The literature around gaming and education is very encouraging for instance, “new approaches of ‘intrinsic integration ‘are linking the motivational elements of games with specific learning activities and outcomes, so that the game-play is both engaging and educationally effective” (Sharples, McAndrew, Weller, Ferguson, Fitzgerald, Hirst & Gaved, 2013, p.5). When I first suggested to colleagues that I was investigating gaming, they expressed surprise and seemed quite skeptical about the fact that gaming was now used in education. And some of my initial investigation found that many of the courses that used games, for example Pennsylvania State University`s games tended to be about profitability, economics, accounting and typing.
Awarding badges for success is another activity associated with gaming. Pennsylvania State University said it was in the stage of developing badges. I can see how Badging could be a strong intrinsic motivator and help drive competition. The NMC Horizon Report, 2012 states that single player games are easier to integrate into the curriculum and go on to say “and have long been an option in many higher education institutions”(Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012 p.7). I am filled with similar feelings of being unreservedly behind as I did when we listened to Tom Cochrane, as inserting games into the curriculum, seems a long way off from where we are currently positioned. Although we do have one game, called “Who wants to be a millionaire”? It has been a useful tool for rote learning content. As I am now not so content focused, on the Bachelor of Culinary Arts, some of the claims about gaming still seem to have a familiar significance and “the greatest potential of games for learning lies in their ability to foster collaboration and engage students deeply in the process of learning” (Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012, p.7).
So, if I consider our learners this year, a small, loud, group of younger and older males enjoyed card playing outside class. Through this activity I can see a synergy with some of the benefit ofd gaming as “the shared endeavors, goals and practices in games also help build affinity groups gathering learners into productive and self-organising communities,” (Sharples, McAndrew, Weller, Ferguson, Fitzgerald, Hirst & Gaved, 2013, p.5). Is gaming therefore suited to males and help engagement in an activity? If I consider my son`s “achievements” and the card playing groups activities, then yes, but Kim (2005) said “Niolosi (2002) found that video games are part of the daily routine for 65% of American girls and 85% of American boys.” So my suggestion is not that well supported.
The main advocate for gaming is Jane Mc Gonical, and in her Ted talk (2013) she advocated failure as a means of learning, and that failure in games has the advantage of providing instant feedback, while you are still engaged and not later as is traditional with written assessment. She also argues that in traditional assessment there is only one opportunity, though does not go on to explain how gamming could provide an alternative (McGonigal, 2013). In her book Reality is Broken (2010) she promotes the idea that gaming encourages problem solving, collaboration and socially positive outcomes. These are all laudable outcomes that we strive for in the program that I currently teach on.
So what I have gained from this investigation is the confidence to have further discussions with other colleagues as to benefits of gaming, using some of the language surrounding this subject which is inspirational, for instance, “educational gaming brings an increasingly credible promise to make learning experiences more engaging for students, while at the same time improving important skills, such as collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking” (Sharples, McAndrew, Weller, Ferguson, Fitzgerald, Hirst & Gaved, 2013, p.7).
To implement a game would require a degree of institutional assistance and pedagogical discussion. Within our department most initiatives are carried out in a collaborative manner, so finding support could be a challenge. And then there is the institution, development of such advanced technologies needs time and investment, which are resources that are shared and contestable. For example, a year ago a colleague, (Steven Ellwood), had just looked into developing an App for what is known as BAGGs model. (Which relies on gaining feedback from a customer through a paper based evaluation, using the “BASICS” and “Just Right “models). Depending on the class size, this development could have saved about three hundred pages of printed paper each year. Unfortunately the idea ended in the hands of an unnamed part of the institution, and in short the idea languished, and we currently still have no App. (Harrington, Baggs &Ottenbacher, 2009).
Currently discussion around the App development is back on the table, and if successful I could gauge its success and test how much enthusiasm it was met with. Then perhaps look at introducing my first idea of a game, which could involve familiarising our year one students with the countries of the Mediterranean to entice early engagement in a project. Or would it be better to develop an introductory game (about campus health and safety) that could benefit all learners across the institution?
Johnson, L., Adams, S., & Cummins, M. NMC Horizon report: 2012. Retrieved from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/HR2012.pdf
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., & Ludgate, H. NMC Horizon report: 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2013-horizon-report
Kem, L. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Gamer-Addiction.aspx
Magill, J. (2013). Industry knowledge recognised . Hospitality/Thirst, 49(Sept), 13.
Otago polytechnic strategy document;( N.A. (2013). Otago polytechnic strategy refocus: roadmap for change. Retrieved from Otago Polytechnici website: http://insite.op.ac.nz/Pages/OP-Strategy-Doc’s-and-Supporting-Frameworks.aspx
Pennsylvania State University N.A. (2012). Games. Retrieved from http://www.psu.edu/copyright-information
Robert J. Harrington, Charlie Baggs & Michael C. Ottenbacher (2009) Moving
from a Tacit to a Structured Culinary Innovation Process: A Case for the BASICS and Just-Right Plots in Evaluation, Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 7:1, 73-88.
Sharples, M., McAndrew, P., Weller, M., Ferguson, R., Fitzgerald, E., Hirst, T., & Gaved, M. (n.d.). Innovating pedagogy 2013 . Retrieved from http://www.open.ac.uk/personalpages/mike.sharples/Reports/Innovating_Pedagogy_report_2013.pdf
Wilkens, K. (2011). Gamification of education. Retrieved from http://ed.ted.com/on/uk36wtoI
For this paper, I have chosen to explore my engagement with learners in the past, and look at engagement and inclusion throughout my epochs of teaching over the last two decades ,with an emphasis on showing how universal design or better learning opportunities for all.
I have been teaching at Otago Polytechnic since 1993, when I first started the Trade Certificate Board Cookery 753, (T.C.B), one of my first eureka moments in delivery of content, was the discovery that people learnt in different ways. Although this may seem naive, I was coming directly from the harsh environment of London`s top restaurants which relied on a hierarchical chain of command and little tolerance for staff and their personal idiosyncrasies. It was the work of Fleming and Mills (1992) and the V.A.R.K, model that helped under pin my approach to the strategies of delivery. So while embracing academic theory, my new profession was influenced by the industry as “tertiary trades educators occupy dual occupational worlds, they are simultaneously members of their trade and educators” (Maurice-Takrei, Jesson et al, 2010, p.156). For example, to ease students fears about entering an academic setting, I borrowed an expression that is common within the (hospitality), industry, “we are like the foreign legion”, which implies that your past is not questioned. The write of entry to the course, was to have six months industry experience, and as a “member of the trade” I could rapidly become part of their community, by knowing of and acknowledging their colleagues within the industry.
For one of my College of Education, Certificate in Adult Education, papers, while teaching T.C.B, 751, I used the, V.A.R.K model, to see which type of first year learners, learnt best. I found that those learners who identified themselves as strong “reader/writers” achieved the best results, despite the “kinesthetic” nature of the T.C.B. course. (When planning or delivering a trade course, the ratio of time spent on practical skills had to be sixty percent, and the other forty percent of time to be spent on theory). I was interested in being able to bridge the gap between academic (theory) and craft skills (practical), and another strategy was to try to blend the “theory” so as the “kinesthetic” learners would not switch off. Fortunately, I was assisted by new technologies, such as colour photo copying, and using videos which contributed to a stronger visual and aural element to my delivery, than had been previously seen. To this day I am still conscious of the learning environment and re arrange the desks in a room so that the students don’t have to turn their head 180◦ to be able to see content at the front of the class when working in groups.
The introduction of Unit-Standards, in 2000 changed the type of student which I taught, the class size trebled, and entry was open, (that is, not restricted elusively to local industry within the lower South Island). In my teaching the relationship between knowledge and application, became more segregated. Some literature reflects the degree of change that happened in this era, and “the profound change in trade’s related education has `disturbed’ educator knowledge.” (Maurice-Takerei, Jesson, a, Seddon, 2010, p.158). In this era , my observation was that to pass a `unit standard’, having a good memorycould be considered to be more important than your style of learning. Emms (2005) found that, “there has not been a lot of attention placed on the complete, full, or continuous education of an apprentice or modern journeyman, rather the focus has been on segregated units of knowledge which fit with the `unit standards ‘and `use-pays’ educational system”(Emms, 2005, p.120). Perhaps the most disconcerting adjustment that I witnessed in this era was as a result of continuous assessment, and the desire for individual responsibility, leading to the unintended development of self-centeredness, which was counter intuitive to the ideals and values of the hospitality industry, where team work and sharing of task is common.
With the introduction of Bachelor of Culinary Arts, (B.C.A), 2012, the entry requirements, and subsequent intake, is the most notable changes in my teaching since 2000. The requirement to have 42 credits at Level 3 can be a barrier to entry for some people, but can also be and an incentive for others, in that the course can be seen as being of higher academic value than the Level 3 Certificate course that is also available. Anecdotally we are now seeing students from some of Dunedin’s `better schools’ .Entry is also dependent on having relative industry experience, or else you will need to come to our foundation skills course prior to the commencement of the program.
The B.C.A, program attracts a diverse range of learners, for instance our youngest student is 17 years old, and our oldest is 51. The average age of the thirty students is 22.11 years old. There are six students (twenty percent) who are over 39 years old, ten students, (thirty three percent) are under 20 years old and fourteen, (forty-seven percent) are aged 20-38 years old. If you compare the findings of the Tertiary Education Commissions, (2012) performance of tertiary education providers, (Otago Polytechnic), Figure 1, or go to http://www.tec.govt.nz/Reports/2012/Otago-Polytechnic.you find that the B.C.A has similar numbers of students in the below twenty bracket, and is eleven percent below the 20-39 category and five percent above the average for 40 years and older. So in comparison to the rest of the polytechnic the B.C.A has a similar age breakdown, given that the cohort only number 30 students.
The ethnicity for the B.C.A, is as follows; twenty Europeans,three Maori, two Korean, one of each:American, Australian, Chinese, Philippian, and Tongan. If you compare the information on http://www.tec.govt.nz/Reports/2012/Otago-Polytechnic.pdf and compare them against the figures from B.C.A chart 1,below,you can see that the B.C.A has a more diverse range of ethnicity in 2013, when compared to the average for Otago Polytechnic, 2012.
Chart 1, showing figures from B.C.A 2013 vs Otago Polytechnic 2012
Ability, gender and socio-economic status.
If you look deeper into the group, twelve (forty percent) are from the local Dunedin area, therefore sixty
percent come from outside the region. There Issues with home sickness, lack of funds, as many are living away from their home base, as well travel demands (and delays) occurs around the breaks, (which sometimes coincide with course induction days and final assessments), all require some flexibility, negotiation and communication. It is also interesting to note that, another consequence of having an external cohort and being a “destination program” (P.Ker, personal communication January 31, 2013), is that you run the risk of alienating the local industry, who do not get to benefit from the student experience, due to the exodus that occurs each semester).
The gender split is thirteen, (forty three percent) female, and seventeen, (fifty six percent) male, most of the teaching staff on the B.C.A are male too. Anecdotally this is a national problem, as most hospitality staff within polytechnics tend to be males, especially in the South Island.
The older students tend to be the most motivated the best with time management and are generally A grade students, despite having the extra responsibilities that are incurred by having family too. However there are currently two older students, who have difficulties, one with managing time and the other with learning issues, poor sight and poor connections to technology. We normally take advantage of these older learners and rely on them in group work situations. Our youngest student has a legal high dependency problem and five (sixteen percent) of younger students have needed some sort of emotional time off, from the course to date. One student has left the course due to alcohol dependency. The demographics within any group can be chilling, and just today, I had to listen to “my bothers fourteen and has…, he gave my mum a black eye and smashed my stepfathers glasses and cut his eye. The cops dropped him back at 8.00 am this morning but he was violent again” (Anon BCA, Student personal communication October 30, 2013).
It now takes longer to become part of this cohort’s community, when compared to two decades ago. As there is not a mandatory check on Numeracy and Literacy as there is in the Certificate program, (which can help and hinder getting to know a learner better), working with learning styles is another useful tool to engage in those early stages of the course, as you can promote the various mediums that we have within our resources.
It now seems almost too simplistic to only use the work of Fleming and Mills now, and is it that I used this work twenty years ago? Or is it the rigidity of four learning styles is too stronger label, for learners these days? The model of Felder& Solomon’s, Learning Styles and Strategies (1991), differs in that it encourages the idea that we all have ability in varying amounts across the spectrum of learning.
Not all learners arrive as well resourced as others; it is interesting to note that to be successful on the B.C.A program you will need digital literacy in the following;
Throughout this year, I have become aware that not all learners possess digitally literacy, and I tend to think of younger learners as being more readily able to access to technology. However socio-economic status can disadvantage learners, severely. If you observe the learners in figure 3 you will see that they are sharing the resources provided by the institution, (computer access) which are essential to preventing barriers to students gaining access to content, support and feedback.
 Otago Polytechnic Student Hub
I have mentioned in other papers that the pedagogy of the B.C.A is unique in culinary education within New Zealand and perhaps the world, (Mitchel, Wood-house, Heptinstall & Camp, 2013). The shift from content based learning, to facilitating inquiry based learning, through project focused tasks is well documented. One of the unexpected consequences of this approach has been the level of engagement that students of different ethnicity have displayed. In the Hot Kitchen paper, student need to investigate the modern trend of foraging, alongside investigating which ingredients can be locally sourced and also telling a story about a time and place with in New Zealand. In figure 4, we can see the integration of traditional Maori food with French technique, and within this project we have tapped into an important driver for “Mana -Atoa, Whenua, Reo, Tangata, and Aoturoa (well-being, belonging, communication, contribution, and exploration)” (Rameka, 2007, p.131).
The work in figure5 is the work of Korean student, whose strengths on the plate are delicate presentation and a flavor profile that was outstanding. So the importance of this connection is tow fold and as well as intrinsic cultural satisfaction the work is received with greater appreciation by the wider class. “Valuing the differences between people and the ways in which those differences can contribute to a richer, more creative and more productive environment.”(Devine, Baum & Hearns, 2009, p.1).
One of the challenges moving forward is how to better support the students within our systems. Our store requisition system is has a bias toward western cookery, and despite our best efforts to date at the stores room is still heavily focused on Mediterranean ingredients. We may not be able to address this problem ourselves and we now need to explore better the relationships between requisition and Government sponsored course related costs.
I have discovered that “historically, skills in hospitality were seen almost exclusively in terms of their technical skills, and this has formed the basis of the training agenda pushed by colleges in Europe and, subsequently, almost worldwide” (Baum, 2012, p.353). And while I consider that the B.C.A is well resourced through multimedia which can be seen as allowing “representation” (Wakefield). And that the practical nature of the course and its formative activities and assessment tools allow for “action” (Wakefield).And with high levels and multiple means of “engagement”, (Wakefield) the program is very engaging, however, Collins& Moonan, (2001), p.15.say;
“Not all students want to make their own choice or be responsible for the quality of their choices. More flexibility brings with it more independence but also the need for more self-direction and more self-motivation”.
It is disconcerting to say that we have on small group, whom we are not connecting with or assisting (despite our and the support service within the Polytechnic`s best efforts to date).This group that tends to be young, employed in the industry; Dunedin based males, who have completed Level 3 Certificate in Cookery, prior to coming to BCA Level 5. My concern for these individuals is driven by their lack of motivation and ability to engage in learning outside the class room. And more worryingly “for students the new choice of which provider and what study mode bring new responsibilities – especially how to pay for it all. Not all students want to have a choice and some are not in a position to exercise it” (Casey and Wilson, 2006, p.9).And it is this group which get caught between having to work and apply themselves to the course in their spare time. This is one of the pains of transitioning from teaching solely certificate to a degree program. The current entry process allows Level 3 Certificate, which is open entry, to join the B.C.A, Level.5. It is common for these individuals express a desire to learn to cook, and not to design, adapt and create. So with this knowledge, do the principles of universal design come to the fore, and we try harder to accommodate their needs or will we partake in a form of social exclusion and give preferential treatment to people from ‘better schools’?
Baum, T. (2012). Skills and training for the hospitality sector: a review of issues. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 55(3), pp.343-364. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13636820200200204
Casey, J and Wilson, P (2006) A practical guide to providing flexible learning in further and higher Education 1-128. C
Collis, B., Moonen, J., (2001).Flexible learning in a digital world; Open and distance learning series. London: Kogan Page LTD. 8-29
Devine, F., Buam, T., & Hearns, N. (2009). Resource guide: cultural awareness for hospitality and tourism. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, 2009(May), 1-16. Retrieved from http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/hlst/documents/resource_guides/cultural_awareness_hosp_tourism.pdf
Emms, S. M. (2005), The modern journeyman: influences and controls of apprentice style learning in
culinary education, Unpublished Masters, Auckland University of Technology (AUT),Auckland.120-121
Felder, R., & Soloman, B. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.htm
Fleming, N. D., & Mills, C. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Mitchell, R., Woodhouse, A., Heptinstall, T., & Camp, J. (2013). Why use design methodology in culinary arts education?. In R. Mitchell (Ed.), Yet to be published. Dunedin:
Maurice-Takeri, L., & Jesson, J. (2010). Nailing down an identity-the voices of six carpentry educators. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ Work, 7(2), 156-179.
Rameka, L. (2007). Maori approaches to assessment. Canadian Journal of Native Education; 30(1), 126-191.
The performance of tertiary education providers/Otago Polytechnic 2012. Retrieved from
Wakefield, M. (0). Retrieved from
Introduction 2013 Flexible learning
My name is David Gillespie and I am a ‘journeyman’ who learnt to love ‘classical’ French cuisine in an era of the master and apprentice type of learning. In my time I have been involved in the learning, practicing and now the delivering of culinary education in a tertiary environment for the over last quarter of a century.
Within my teaching at Otago Polytechnic for the last 20 years, there has been a move away from the `master apprentice’ model of learning, partly due to the immediacy of information that can be accessed now days, and the changing nature of industry in a worldwide basis. Our learners are now derived from a wider section of society than the previous cohorts which were sourced only from the `industry’.
I am currently immersed in the teaching of the Bachelor of Culinary Arts programme, in the `old’ School of Hospitality. The programme is in its second year of delivery and it has been a decade long project that has propelled my teaching into an area which now uses a design led model for project based learning while embracing of creativity within food design.
My marriage has lasted for 20 years also; we have two children who swim at a national level that means that sometimes we only know the changing of the seasons by the lack of intensity of the sun rise and bird songs. I provide most of the carbohydrates to the family on a daily basis, the dog manages to eat most of our scraps and the house is due for paint. My interests involve reading variety of books and magazines;
Ultimately I must operate under the rules of Otago Polytechnic and flexibility is constrained by yearly occurrences, semester reporting and time tabling restrictions which are due to resource sharing. However without some of these `milestones’ for students to reach, extrinsic motivation may be lacking.
Some blended delivery exists within the cookery programmes at Hospitality, with Moodle mostly being used for content, and flicker http://www.flickr.com/photos/bca2013 currently being used to capture images. The majority of teaching in certificate and year one of Bachelor of culinary arts is face to face. Though the use of; phones and laptops is welcomed in class.
I am mostly involved in year one of Bachelor of Culinary Arts as the degree progress progresses there is more flexibility. A blog site is used by year two students for a group work project and the CAPABLE learners are assessed by using a graduate profile as the learning agreement and negotiated research is one of the tools we use.
So what do I want learn from this course
How can I bring greater flexibility for learners within the existing frame work given TECs `control of our courses? There are changes to strategic direction of our school in, so will I be better placed to endorse these more flexible modes of delivery?
As more technology’s become available for instance laptops, phone and now tablets, are these mediums fare and equable in the realms of blended delivery?
Can a community of learners be foster using new technologies? Facebook has revolutionized the `community’ of my past cohort of students: https://www.facebook.com/home.php#!/dgillespie
but will our new graduates maintain a “social alumina” moving forward?
Reference for images;